This article aims to discuss the most popular nootropics in use today. You will learn everything you need to know about nootropics, what their benefits in the body are, and the right dosages.
Are you new to nootropics and wondering how to best use them? Well, you’re at the right place to learn everything about nootropics.
Complete List Of Top Nootropics Ingredients
This article is also a great reference for the nootropics gurus. We have discussed the full benefits of each and every nootropic and its specific mechanism of action.
Learn how to pair your nootropics with others in your stack. The best way to start taking nootropics is to always start with the lowest dosages possible and then work your way up.
Our bodies are different, so learn and recognize the benefits the nootropic has on your body.
Here is the comprehensive list of the most used nootropics: Go through it and learn everything you ever wanted to know about nootropics, the benefits, recommended dosages, and combinations.
Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR)
ALCAR is a brain booster nootropic that is naturally produced in the liver. Once it’s synthesized, it easily crosses the blood brain barrier making it easier to be absorbed.
The effectiveness of ALCAR comes out clearly when it works to promote brain metabolism, improves mitochondria energy, and also works as a neuroprotectant. This makes it more powerful to enhance the performance of other nootropics in the brain.
Acetyl-l-carnitine has a great role in memory boosting, fluid balancing, mental balance, and alertness.
Since this medicine is a strong antioxidant, it has been commonly tasked to protect neurotransmitters and allow other nootropics to work perfectly with its aid.
Before you take this medicine, make sure you contact your doctor so as to get the right dosage and the precautions to taker when using the medication. However, the recommended dosage is 500-1500 mg daily.
This nootropic is naturally found in the brain and just like acetylcholine, has major roles to play in the body. It aids in memory control, thinking, control of muscles, and enhancement of sleep.
The component makes its way across the blood-brain barrier, promoting the levels of acetylcholine which in turn boosts brain function, thinking, sleep, and general focus. It also works well for older users by protecting against memory loss.
Just like other boosters extracted from beef and plants, Alpha- GPC comes from animal beef, spinach, eggs, and cod fish. Other extracts are found in soy or sunflower. This gives the product great power in providing energy to your brain.
The recommended dose of Alpha GPC is 600 mg per day. The routine should be followed as advised by your doctor to avoid side effects.
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Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA)
ALA works perfectly to enable the brain to get enough energy. Just like the natural acid produced in the body, known as lupoic acid, ALA boosts the body’s ability to enable excellent functioning of the brain.
The ALA antioxidant is a perfect energy producer for the cells. This nootropic works to eliminate the extra products left when nutrients are being converted to cell energy.
ALA, just like the other memory boosting compounds, works to shield the brain cells from any damage and to improve the memory. It has also proved to be effective in the improvement of thinking and focus.
As a person ages, the amount of natural lupoic acid decreases in the body, and they need to begin supplementation using the artificial ALA. This product has the ability to shied one from brain infection and diseases.
This is a fat soluble compound that ranks on top of other similar nootropics. When compared with original products of this kind, Aniracetam is one of the best boosters and is sold as a subscription drug in Europe and a supplement in the USA.
This drug is consumed with the aim of boosting memory, as well as relieving stress and depression. It’s also used in anxiety management and promotes sociable nature.
This medicine woks to optimize the brain, improve neurotransmitter functioning, and provide energy to the brain. All of the above aims at making your focus and clarity perfect.
The recommended dosage is 750- 1500 mg per day. You are scheduled to take half your dose twice a day. You can contact your doctor for more information.
This medicine has been used for years. The natives who originally named this plant because of the energy it produces, like the power of a horse. The name roughly translates to “smell of horse”. It’s natural and provides vigor and power in the brain.
When this compound is used as a nootropic it helps in stress management, depression relief, and giving the body energy to reduce fatigue.
Ashwagandha is an adoptogen, meaning that it works to by assisting the body to normalize blood sugar, works as an antioxidant, regulates insulin, and protects the general internal body health.
The recommended dosage for this herb is 600- 1000 mg twice in a day. You can consult your physician to ensure accuracy in terms of medication is adhered to.
Artichoke Extract (Luteolin)
Luteolin works by inhibiting PDE4, an enzyme that breaks down and blocks accurate information transfer in the brain. When the message systems that transport information to the brain are broken, then the brain won’t work well.
This compound works on enabling sleep to occur perfectly, promote focus, and boost memory. It also encourages proper thinking as well as preventing damaging of transmitters.
When this product is combined with other extracts, it boosts the working of brain cells and the signaling of the brain is improved.
The recommended dosage for this extract is supposed to be 500 mg per day.
This nootropic has been used for quite some years and its discovery enabled the users to memorize long texts and passages. It was named after the supreme gods of the Hindis and it was considered a powerful brain booster.
Since Bacopa Monnieri is an adaptogen, it aids in stress relief and lowers the chemical effects that come as a result of stress. The depressant works in a unique way that is unlike the normal depressors that work to suppress the stress levels in the body.
Apart from boosting memory an improving concentration, this nootropic works perfectly in reducing stress, anxiety, depression, and memory loss.
The compound easily crosses the blood brain barrier and is faster and more effective in treating various disorders such as ADHD. It’s recommended to take 450 mg daily.
For normal cell division, prevention of inflammation, and promotion of antioxidant effects, this nootropic works perfectly. It’s a South American vine that has been used for a while to promote cell division and DNA repair.
When it comes to brain health, the vine has been used widely in enhancing memory and preventing brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. It also boosts production of acids that aid in memory.
The recommended dosage is 250 to 350 mg per day.
Choline is a nootropic that cannot be supplied by the body on its own, so we need supplements to ensure its availability. Since it’s an important nutrient that the body needs, then it must be provided within the required amounts to help the body function properly.
Choline is produced from common food products like eggs, meat, and various vegetables. The composition brings about a great formulation that boosts the brain health.
If you experience fatigue, loss of appetite, memory loss, and pain in the muscle, then that could be an indicator of choline deficiency.
The types of choline nootropics are as follows.
Choline bitartrate is a weaker source of Choline compared to CDP-Choline and Alpha GPC. It therefore requires more usage to realize the same nootropic effects. As a nootropic supplement it is one of the most affordable Choline sources.
Choline Bitrate can be administered from 500 milligrams to 5 grams per day. It’s very essential since it improves the brain energy by maintaining clarity of thought. It also helps in developing new brain cells and improves memory.
When it reaches the brain, it triggers the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline received recognition by the Food and Nutrition board of National Institute of Medicine by being declared an essential nutrient.
Choline citrate acts like a precursor to acetylcholine in the brain, just like other sources of Choline. Choline citrate is slightly more concentrated as a result of combining derivative of citric acid and choline. When used in large doses it’s more effective as a nootropic.
It helps in boosting memory, cognitive abilities, and improves concentration. Most importantly, it has medicinal value in treating brain diseases like Alzheimer’s, which makes it very essential to humanity.
Choline citrate helps in cellular and muscle repair, which makes athletes fond of using it. It is usually available in capsule, powder, or pill form. It can either be taken with fruit juice or water since it is soluble. The dosage ranges from 500 milligrams to 3 grams per day.
Cytidine Disphosphate is also called Citiciline. It is highly a bioavailable source of Choline which crosses the blood-brain barrier easily. It forms cytidine when it metabolizes in the body.
Choline helps in the synthesis of acetylcholine, which is connected with learning and memory. CDP is very effective and has the ability to boost the effectiveness of other nootropics.
CDP-Choline is very essential because the body uses it faster than it can produce and the best source in nature for supplementing is from food. The dosage of CDP-Choline is 250 to750 milligrams per day.
Centrophenoxine is one of the original nootropics that was developed in France. It is a combination of DMAE and PCPA. Combining DMAE with PCPA helps it cross the blood-brain barrier. DMAE is the one that increases acetylcholine levels in the brain.
It mainly boosts mood and cognition. When used as a supplement, it’s more effective than DMAE alone. Centrophenoxine is mostly marketed in Europe as ‘Lucidril’ to treat ADHD and Alzheimer’s.
As an excellent source of acetylcholine, it helps boot the effectiveness of some nootropics such as piracetam when in combination with centrophenoxine.
Centrophenoxine assists in reducing lopofuscin in the brain, which is a cellular waste product which accumulates as people age. Lipofuscin is dangerous because it is the cause of brown liver spots on the skin.
What makes the use of centrophenoxine significant is that it wipes away almost half of the brain’s lipofuscin in eight weeks. It also significantly improves oxygen and cerebral blood flow in the brain. The suitable dosage ranges from 500 to 1000 milligrams
Regarded as the newest racetam based nootropics which was patented in 2005 by Mitsubishi, Coluracentam is a very strong choline. In brain optimization, coluracetam boosts the effects of choline in the brain.
Since it increases the production of Choline it can result in better memory and learning. It increases the effectiveness of glutamate, boosting neural signaling.
It does this by desensitizing glutamate receptors in the brain. The end result is more effective concentration and focus.
Another very important role that coluracetam plays is in the treatment of depression and anxiety. This makes it an effective anti-anxiety medication.
People who suffer from major anxiety can find a remedy in the administration of coluracetam, even those who fail to respond to SSRI’s.
The most preferred dosage for coluracetum is 20 to 80 milligrams, however the reason for the use of coluracetum and past experience with the nootropic is key in determining the dosage.
Apparently one can commence with a lower dose and increase as time moves. However, coluracetum may be a potential ampakline nootropic since personal use and some research shows that it can affect AMPA receptors. This explains the stimulant-like effects.
CoQ10 & Ubiquinol
CoQ10 is obtained naturally from butter, extra virgin olive oil, sardines, beef, mackerel, and liver.
Though our bodies can convert CoQ10 to Ubiquinol from food, it is prudent to give our bodies CoQ10 by the use of Ubiquinol as a supplement directly. By doing so there’s no need for conversion.
Ubiquinone, which was the original supplement of CoQ10, was updated to Ubiquinol, a new version that is able to boost bioavailability to a higher percentage.
The new version is more effective and plays important roles. CoQ10 converts fats into usable energy in the body, making the body more active and strong. It also improves brain energy, protects brain cells from dying, and fuels mitochondria in the body.
CoQ10 is useful in athletics since it provides enough energy for athletes through reduction of fatigue and suppressing depression.
Moreover, CoQ10 improves immunity, keeps blood pressure at a required level, makes the heart healthy, and generally rejuvenates the whole body. The recommendable dose for CoQ10 is 100 milligrams per day.
Creatine is an energy provider that is made in the liver to fuel mitochondria and activate the brain cells. It is one of the most essential nootropics that provides energy.
Stored in the body as phosphocreatine, this supplement goes directly to the muscle to supply the energy required by the body.
Vegetarians, when compared to meat eaters, have lower levels of creatine in their bodies. Because of the energy required by the brain to perform specific function, creatine is a basic requirement in the provision of the needed energy.
It easily crosses the blood brain barrier, so its effectiveness is processed faster.
Creatine has been put forward as the best fuel for the brain and muscles. It is mostly used by athletes to boost energy. Other roles of creatine include mood booster, concentration and power focus, mental endurance, and fatigue control.
The dosage recommended depends on how youintend to use creatine and what you goal results are. Overall, this supplement has a general recommendation of 200 mg per day. When it’s applied as a nootropic, one needs 3 to 5 grams per day.
DHA (Omega 3)
The brain needs fats to function well and, therefore, excellent supply of fats is required. The most omega 3 studied compounds are the DHA and EPA.
When the body has insufficient Omega 3 components, anxiety, depression and stress take over. This distorts memory and the ability to reason well. The deficiency of Omega 3 could results in brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s diseases.
Since DHA is a component of the brain’s synapse function, it works to boost the mood whenever taken. Furthermore, the supplement enhances balance of emotions.
Some of the foods rich in Omega 3 supplements include fish, spinach, walnuts, krill, and cabbage, among other foods. Therefore, one is encouraged to eat these meals to boost the formation of Omega 3 supplementation in the body.
Ideally, the real dosage of omega 3 should include DHA and should be 1000mg per day.
This substance is produced by the adrenal glands. Low levels of DHEA are observed with aging and this requires supplementation. Low levels are characterized by low motivation, depression, fatigue, loss of memory, and anxiety.
Proper supply of DHEA promotes general well-being as well as improved motivation.
Extensive use of DHEA negatively affects the body in men and can lead to damaged cells.
The recommended dosage is 25 mg per day, which can be used for some time. Note that extensive use of this supplement might cost you, so you should be very careful when using it.
DMAE (Dimethylaminoethanol) occurs naturally in the brain and unlike other sites that report it as a precursor to various compounds, it comes out to prevent the metabolization of choline while promoting choline levels in the individuals brain.
For stable mood and improved alertness, DMAE has been found to be effective. More studies continue to show improved mood by this product.
With a longer time of use and with heavy doses, you may be at the risk of experiencing side effects such as mood swings, loss of sleep, and general weakness.
The recommended dosage is to begin with a lower quantity of 50 mg per day and work your way up to as much as 250 mg daily.
Carry out experimentation to ascertain whether the medication is the right one for you, as this will help you avoid overdose and possible side effects.
This product is produced naturally and aids in neuron communications. It works in enhancing enzymes to boost the way messages are sent to the brain and back.
5-HTP crosses the blood brain barrier, promoting the conversion of serotonin. This automatically improves appetite, mood, sleep, and behavior.
This nootropic has been proved to have a great effect on impulse control and, therefore, works effectively in reducing panic attacks and anxiety.
For this product to work effectively the right dosage should be administered, which is 50 mg thrice a day over a period of two weeks. The dosage should be adhered to carefully as there a possible side effects both for overdosing and for taking too little.
Forskolin (Coleus root)
This nootropic isn’t commonly used. When it is administered, it should be combined with other elements to make it stronger and able to supply the needed energy. The medicine has been used in improvement of memory and reasoning.
Forskolin works by boosting the brain cells in the body to allow stronger connections that facilitate better transfer of information to the brain.
The allowed dosage should be between 150 to 250 mg per day. If one administers doses above the recommended ones then the outcome will be severe side effects.
This nootropic is produced in the brain by glutamate. It serves both as an amino acid and as a neurotransmitter. This works by preventing other neurotransmitters from being produced, reducing anxiety levels and relaxing the brain.
The use of GABA only doesn’t give excellent results, so this supplement should be combined with another to allow the blood brain barrier to be accessible by GABA.
Therefore, a supplement known as phenibut is essential for effective GABA use. Once the two are combined and made to work together, notable stress reduction and lowered anxiety levels are observed.
The recommended dosage for this supplement is 250 mg per day, and this should be adhered to carefully to avoid negative side effects.
This product comes from the ginkgo tree leaves. With a long usage history that dates back into ancient china, the notable uses have been observed in brain boosting, reduction of fatigue, promotion of mental alertness, and boosting focus and concentration.
With its continued use, improvements have been realized in terms of memory boosting and aging in the elderly, memory function, and in the way brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease are handled.
Ginkgo also plays a role in memory improvement, stress relief, fast reasoning, and quick decision making.
The recommended dosage is 120-240 mg per day, and this should be consumed with food. Note that intake of ginkgo should be carefully administered as some individuals might experience internal bleeding which is dangerous.
If you are above forty years old, then you will find the importance of this nootropic easily. It works by boosting memory, improving retention, suppressing anxiety, and boosting attention and concentration.
There are different types of ginseng according to different countries, and each country’s ginseng features different characteristics and roles. This, therefore, allows the nootropic in use to play its function as required.
If you are considering using ginseng, then you need to abide by the recommended dosage of 100mg per day. If you happen to go beyond the daily recommendations, then adverse effects might occur.
Furthermore, you are advised to seek information from your doctor just before you begin use at any dosage.
This supplement is scientifically known as Centella Asiatic. It’s an ancient medicine that was used to treat many conditions such as anxiety, stress, depression, skin conditions, blood circulation, and memory.
With old age, there is an experience in brain shrinking and studies have shown that this supplement, when used correctly, can correct the shrinking and bring the brain back to life.
Those who use this supplement found it effective in its results compared to other supplements that aren’t as effective as Gotu Kola.
The dosage given per day allows dried leaves be used thrice a day in amounts of 400-600 mg. The dosage should be kept at these levels to produce the desired results. Any overdose can result in extreme side effects.
This is mostly used in china and it’s a natural herb extracted from Chinese club. It’s an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, making it a good booster of neurotransmission of information. It plays a major role on memory improvement.
Those who use Huperzine-A have reported improvement in thinking, fast calculations, quick decision making, as well as a general memory boost that promotes retention. Increased dreaming has also been experienced with the use of this supplement.
Therefore, this supplement features all the needed products to make the brain function perfectly.
The recommended dosage should be 200mg per day and this should be taken for the number of days instructed. Overdose has adverse effects to your general health. Take caution while taking the medication.
This is a cognitive enhancer and is widely used in areas where individuals experience lower IQ. Iodine mostly comes from salt, and in countries such as America there is a deficiency of salt in many diets.
Iodine is said to be important to the functioning of the thyroid and without the iodine, the brain functions won’t work properly. In childhood, when iodine deficiency is noticed, a resulting mental retardation may be observed.
Thyroxin produced by iodine can help the brain in promoting gene growth and enabling it to kill toxins that could otherwise damage the brain.
If you interact with anyone who has suffered from a goiter, then you will know the importance of iodine towards the growth of the brain and excellent communication in the brain.
The recommended dosage for adults ranges from 25-50 mg per day, and more supplements can be added. Note that Brazilian Nuts also contain large amounts of iodine.
Kava kava is commonly found in the south pacific and has been anciently used for its sedative ability. Kava plays a lot of roles in the human body, such as reduction of stress, anxiety management, mood balance, and the body’s general health.
When it comes to the functions that come with thinking, it has been noted that Kava promotes cognition and doesn’t inhibit as other supplements do.
Since this supplement has been consumed for years with effective results, it is a great option for those who want to get the best for their brains and general body cells.
Kava has 105 varieties and out of this, a few are used only in the pacific area.
The right dosage for Kava is 200-250 mg and it is recommended for you to experiment to find the right combination for your body.
This mushroom works to improve the overall body health as well as cognitive function.
It has been used for ages in china with excellent results showing from its use in boosting thinking skills, improving focus and attention, nerve development, repairing nerve damage, and modulation of neurotransmitters.
Lion’s mane has an upper handing treating these issues because it goes straight to the root cause of the problem. This makes it totally different from the rest of the nootropics.
Other neurological problems like Alzheimer’s disease can be managed with proper intake of this nooropic.
When it comes to lion’s mane dosage, the kind of extract will determine the dosage you need to take.
For example, if the extract is very concentrated, then you will need to take a lower dosage compared to an extract that is lees concentrated. You will want to shoot for 500mg per day.
L-carnosine is found in the body and is majorly produced in the muscles, kidneys, and liver. It features two amino acids which are beta alanine and l-histidine. This supplement works to strengthen the muscles, providing the anti-aging and muscle strength benefits.
When it takes part in neurotransmission, it aids in the removal of AGE, or Advance Glycosylation End-Products. This aids in the removal of toxic metals and healing of Alzheimer’s condition.
This supplement doesn’t guarantee you immediate results, but using it for a period of four weeks brings out results and which can be observed as improved muscle strength and better neural performance.
The recommended dosage for this supplement is 1000mg per day and other supplements can also be added to enhance better performance. In most cases, athletes use this supplement to enhance endurance and muscle power.
The intake of this supplement should not be overdosed as side effects might come up after continuous usage. Studies have shown that those who use this supplement in overdose usually experience negative effects.
L-Dopa (Mucuna Pruriens)
L-Dopa is a promoter to the formation of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine in the brain. This noorotropic is made from L-tyrosine, which is an amino acid.
When dopamine is insufficiently supplied to the mind then Parkinson’s condition can arise, as well as depression and other emotional concerns.
This supplement is soluble and easily crosses the blood brain barrier to access the brain directly. This makes it work faster compared to other nootropics that cannot pass through the blood brain barrier.
L-Dopa extract comes from the velvet bean or cowitch. The dosage depends on the strength and concentration of the extract made. It is recommended to have a dosage of 150 mg per day.
Lemon Balm is scientifically known as Melissa officinalis and has been widely used to treat and eliminate stress and anxiety. This plant is found in the Mediterranean region and its leaves feature a smell of lemon.
The contents in this supplement lower tension levels and ensure the right amount of GABA enzyme is produced in the brain.
When we turn to nootropic effects, lemon balm is used to calm instances of anxiety, stress, and depression. It can also be used in learning retention and memory boosting.
The right dosage allows 2 to 3 grams of dried lemon balm leaves. Its extract can also be taken in 300-600 mg per day.
Just like other nootropics, this supplement improves focus, concentration, retention, and general brain functioning. It makes the neurotransmitters work more efficiently. This supplement works by boosting GABA enzymes and Glutamic acid.
It also helps in detoxification and cuts free movements in the mind, reducing the levels of anxiety.
When GABA levels are increased, there is a notable effect in the improved sleeping pattern and reduced levels of stress.
When it comes to the dosage, you are recommended to take small amounts to monitor the reaction; thereafter you can increase the intake as time goes by. Otherwise, you need to take 500 mg per day. While experimenting, you might get the accurate dosage for yourself.
This is an amino acid that naturally occurs in oolong and green tea. It’s commonly used to tame anxiety, mood, focus and stress.
It promotes the feel good hormones in the brain. This supplement is soluble, so it passes through the blood brain barrier easily to start functioning faster.
L-Theanine can be used alongside other supplements such as caffeine, and according to the users this has excellent effects on the general brain and body functioning. With the combined strength, improved cognition is enhanced and proper mental skills are observed.
Since it’s a water soluble product, the dosage of 200-500 mg is required to make the body function well. This supplement also works precisely and the results can change based on very slight dosage alterations, so the right doses should be observed for effectiveness.
Lack of enough magnesium in the body might lead to anxiety, brain fog, and depression. When magnesium deficiency is in the body, a lot of the processes do not trigger properly, so the right amount of magnesium should be supplied for effectiveness.
Note that most of the magnesium found in the body is inefficient due to the types of foods taken.
Neuron-plasticity comes about due to sufficient supply of magnesium in the brain. This is a key factor to improve the brain’s overall functioning. Thinking and memory are improved with the intake of magnesium.
Other uses of magnesium include prevention of stroke, better blood movement, and prevention of heart attack.
Since magnesium is insoluble, it doesn’t cross the blood brain barrier, so there is need for an improved magnesium compound. This compound is Magnesium-L-threonate, which is highly recommended for nootropic purposes.
The recommended dosage for adults is 1 gram per day. This dosage should be followed strictly to avoid negative side effects.
Melatonin is produced in the body and promotes sleep. This hormone is produced just before one sleeps. It’s a great nootropic that works to help you get sufficient sleep.
Note that melatonin levels during the day are low as compared to the night times. Studies have shown high concentrations of melatonin at 2 to 3 am.
When a person gets older, the levels of melatonin drop, and this results in insufficient sleep. Therefore, supplements should be added to enhance the functioning of melatonin.
When the levels are down in old age, general body functioning in terms of thinking, focus, memory are compromised. A pineal gland that isn’t functioning properly might result in low or no production of melatonin hormone.
It’s encouraged not to take melatonin during the day as it might affect the functioning of other enzymes. It should therefore be taken one to two hours before bed time.
Different dosages apply differently according to the individual taking the supplement.
You can start with small doses just before you sleep, and this experimentation will help you work towards the right amounts for your body. Note that you should never overdose as it might have adverse effects on your general health.
This is an amino acid tasked to regulate glumate and dopamine levels in the brain. NAC is often used as an antidote to Tylenol and carbon monoxide effects and poisoning.
NAC has major functions that include prevention of liver damage due to alcoholism, Alzheimer’s disease, toxic metal elimination, control of bi-polar disorders, and control of depression. This supplement works by reducing free radicals in the brain.
The right dosage for this nootropic is 600mg three times a day, and the user will experience better memory functioning, low levels of stress, and above all increased motivation.
Note that for the supplement to work effectively, the right doses should be adhered to as required by your doctor.
NALT is available in amino acid form and its main contribution to the body cells in the enhancement of production of dopamine. It is also a neurotransmitter that promotes functioning of adrenaline hormone.
The dopamine produced aids in libido, memory boosting, focus, and concentration, as well as mood elevation.
If one looks forward to boosting memory and executing various functions, then this supplement works perfectly to restore the best brain functions. It also works well in stress elimination.
Studies that were conducted within the military forces showed that tyrosine was useful in preventing colds and ensuring the body functioned perfectly.
It worked well on fatigue, stress, and depression, and lowered the tendencies of the body to wear out during difficult tasks.
The recommended dosage is between 300-500 mg per day. Note that the effect of the supplement istypically only seen when the right dosage is administered.
This is an antioxidant tasked with improving alertness, mental energy, mood, and other body functions. It works as an enzyme in the vitamin B family.
The combination of the enzymes produced forms ATP that is found in body parts that are hungry or feature insufficient amounts of enzymes.
As one ages, the amount of NADH in the body reduces, hence the need to replenish. The supplement boosts the production of dopamine and norepinephrine enzymes that improve alertness and focus.
A recommended dosing of 5-20 mg per day is required. Always stick to the recommended dosage for better performance.
Nefiracetam belongs to the racetam group that enables cognitive enhancement. It is a newer nootropic in the family. It was originally developed in Japan in order to treat memory and learning deficit caused by some medical conditions.
The structural composition of Nefiracetam looks like that of Aniracetam. However, it is considered to be more potent than aniracetam. The nootropic is fat soluble, which enables it to cross the blood brain barrier easily.
It works on the part of the brain that assists in recall and boosting memory. This happens to be the hippocampus area of the brain.
In health facilities, Nefiracetam is used to treat depression and for the protection of nerves. The dosage of the drug depends on body weight. Most of the users use 100-900mg of the product per day. Lower doses are said to have little benefit.
Scientific research shows that nicotine molecules regulate various receptor systems in the body by attaching to the nicotinic acetylcholine. One of the ways it works is by making the brain more alert. It is also known to have a cooling effect on the brain.
The first neurotransmitter that is boosted by nicotine is dopamine. This is why nicotine becomes addictive with regular use.
Several studies have shown its effectiveness against ADHD, Parkinson’s diseases, schizophrenia, Tourette’s, and other disorders that affect the neural system.
Nicotine is among the most effective cognitive enhancers today. The common addiction to tobacco, a major source of nicotine, is partly caused by other compounds in the cigarette.
Do not smoke to get this nootropic. Rather use a nicotine lozenge or a patch. Do not exceed one or two mg of nicotine each day.
Noopept is believed to relate to the racetam family. It is derived from a peptide and is more than 1000x more potent than using piracetam. It works similarly to other types of racetams in the body.
Noopept is known to stimulate the nicotinic, serotonin, and dopamine receptors. It helps boost memory, cognition, logical thinking, and improves mood and reflex response.
Clinical studies have also shown that Noopept can increase an individual’s Brain Nerve Growth Factor (BNGF).
The recommended dosage for Noopept is about 10 to 30 mg each day. Higher doses have high effects but should not exceed 30 mg daily. This nootropic is usually taken with sources of choline such as CDP Choline and Alpha GPC.
Oat straw (also called avena sativa) is harvested from green oat grass. It is the source of the term in English that talks of sowing the wild oats.
Oat Straw is known to increase the levels of luteinizing hormone in the body. This is thought to be the basis of the above English term. The luteinizing hormone boosts the production of testosterone.
The Oat Straw also increases the levels of dopamine and MAO-B inhibitor in the body. Just like the rest of nootropics, it also helps improve focus, concentration, cognition, and attention.
Similar benefits are experienced on optimizing the levels of dopamine and testosterone in the body. The recommended dose for the oat straw extract is between 800 and 1600 mg daily.
Oxiracetam is another nootropic that comes from the racetam family. It is said to be more than five times more potent than using piracetam.
This nootropic is also known to stimulate the brain to make use of acetylcholine by enhancing the work of NDMA and AMPA receptors in the nerve system.
Oxiracetam is known to boosts the mental energy, memory, recall, focus and enhances fluidity when thinking. Most of the users stack it with a source of choline because it helps improve the utilization of choline compounds in the brain.
You can also pair Oxiracetam with other nootropics in your daily usage. Experts recommend that you take a dosage of 750 mg to 1,500 mg each day. The dosage should be spread across the day.
You can combine Oxiracetam with potent sources of choline like CDP Choline and Alpha GPC. Choline helps prevent a headache or a feeling of fatigue when using Oxiracetam.
The Soviet Union discovered and developed Phenibut in the early 1960s. Phenibut primarily binds to GABA-B receptor making it a GABA agonist. Other GABA agonists, particularly for GABA-A, are benzodiazepines and alcohol.
Phenibut help improves symptoms of anxiety thanks to its anti-anxiety qualities. It also has a strong sedative effect. You can use it to deal with depression, improve your cognitive function, your mood, and enhance your motivation.
When starting to take Phenibut, start with a dose of about one gram each day. It is recommended that you take the nootropic on an empty stomach in order to realize its benefits within two to six hours.
For heavy users of Phenibut, a dosage of 1.5 mg per day can do. However, people who are starting should keep away from very high doses.
This is the Russian variant of piracetam, also called Carphedon. It is known to be between 30 to 60 times potent than the Piracetam. They created Phenylpiracetam by adding to Piracetam a new molecule derived from a Phenyl group.
Phenylpiracetam is used for enhancing recall, improving memory and concentration, increasing the learning capacity, motivation, and enhancing your mental energy. It also works as a brain stimulant.
Other users use Phenylpiracetam for the reduction of motion sickness, to boost their physical performance, improve the tolerance to cold, as well as to deal with anxiety.
Use Phenylpiracetam 100 mg twice each day. Your body may become tolerant to the substance over time. Thus, it is vital that you cycle it from time to time and only use it when you need a good cognitive boost.
The best way to do this is to have a week using it and another week without using it. This way the body does not develop tolerance.
Picamilon is scientifically known as nicotinyl-y-aminobutyric acid. It is made from a combination of Vitamin B3 (niacin) and GABA. The Soviet Union developed it as an enhancement to GABA that is able to cross the blood brain barrier.
Picamilon separates back to the source elements (GABA and Niacin). This makes the blood vessels dilate for increased blood flow and has a calming effect on the brain.
Users go for Picamilon due to its ability to improve focus, memory, concentration, and motivation. It also lowers the blood pressure and reduces anxiety.
Starting users are advised to start with the lowest dose and watch for its effects on the body. You should only increase the dosage if you feel that you can tolerate it. The typical dosage used by many nootropic users range between 50 mg and 100 mg daily.
It is taken either two or three times a day. Heavy users can take up to 300 mg daily. To boost its action in the body, it should be taken before you take your food.
Pine Bark Extract
This extract is derived from French marine time bark. Pycnogenol is water soluble and contains between 60 to 75 percent of the proanthocyanidins.
The extract is very effective in the improvement of the blood flow in the brain as it contains nitric oxide that dilates the blood vessels. It also helps maintain as well as repair the linings of the blood vessels.
Pine Bark Extract is also a very powerful antioxidant. It finds and destroys the free radicals, thereby protecting the brain cells and neurons from any oxidative damage. It is also an anti-inflammatory.
This makes it good for your skin, blood sugar balance, DNA, eye health, and penile erection. It also helps deal with hay fever, asthma, PMS, and ADHD.
Proanthocyanidins are condensed in fruit tannins of berries, beans, and tea. The pine bark has more bioflavonoids than any of these fruits.
Nootropics use a dosage of Pycnogenol or Pine Bark Extract of up to 100mg.The dosage is taken three times a day.
Piperine is extracted from black pepper. It is used along with other supplements to enhance their absorption. This works well for some people while it does not work with others.
It is common to find BioPerine added to other supplements taken as nootropics. BioPerine is a patented piperine that makes other nutrients more bio-available. Many of the users take between 5 and 20 mg of Piperine.
Higher doses of Piperine are detrimental to the health of the users. Thus, it is advisable that you start in low doses.
Piracetam is a Roman innovation from a leader in nootropics called Corneliu E. Giurgea. This was the first in the family of racetams.
Piracetam is a GABA derivative in a cyclic form. It does not affect the brain GABA receptors. However, it is known to affect the NMDA and AMPA receptors that affect the memory and learning processes in the brain.
The nootropic also affects the acetylcholine neurotransmitter as it boosts the ACH receptors and enables them to be sensitive to acetylcholine.
Nootropic users should take a dosage of about 1 to 4.8 grams each day. It is important to start from the low dosage if you are a beginner.
Moreover, use less if you are stacking with other supplements. The focus of using it should be to improve focus, memory, and learning.
Rhodiola Rosea is known to increase the amounts of AMPK in the cells. AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) is one of the cell enzymes that work as the body’s master switch.
When this switch is on, it helps use the stored fat into energy and gets rid of the sugars and fats from the blood. It is also known to reduce inflammation, boost the production of mitochondria, removal of cell waste products, and the reduction of inflammation.
On the other hand, when the AMPK becomes activated, it helps your body deal with other conditions the Parkinson and Alzheimer’s disease.
The extract is known to deal with stress and the related mood swings, and decrease depression. It also helps you become alert, boost cognition, reduce fatigue, and enhance your alertness. The typical dosage for Rodiola Rosea is between 150 mg and 200 mg.
Phenylalanine is a form of amino acid that is known to cross the blood-brain barrier. The body does not produce this compound. It comes from such sources as milk and meat.
Phenylalanine assists in the production of tyrosine, an amino acid found in the brain. This is why it is a precursor. Tyrosine, on the other hand, helps in the formation and usage of such neurotransmitters like epinephrine, dopamine, and norepinephrine.
Nootropic users use Phenylalanine to help improve their moods, deal with chronic pain, and boost their energy levels. It also has features to assist in boosting motivation, improving focus, and providing relief in cases of anxiety.
Doctors use the compound to deal with the symptoms of Parkinson’s and ADHD conditions.
You can take up to 500 mg of Phenylalanine spread over three times each day. Use with caution if you are on medication for depression.
Phosphatidylcholine is a type of phospholipids whose highest concentrations are found in the liver and brain. Nootropic users use it a supplement to aid in building and repairing the cell membranes.
When you consume Phosphatidylcholine as a nootropic, it is separated in your body as sphingomyelin and choline. Choline acts as a precursor for the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine.
Sphingomyelin is utilized in both the development and for the protection of all the brain cells.
Scientists have found that people with low choline levels tend to have Phosphatidylcholine taken from body cells and used in the synthesis of acetylcholine.
This is the leading cause of brain fog, poor memory and ability to recall, and Alzheimer’s disease, among other conditions.
Phosphatidylcholine can be used to boost the brain choline levels. Nootropic user should take a typical dosage of between 1.2 mg and 5 mg every day. Beginner users should start with lower doses that are spread in two to three times a day.
Phosphatidylserine is produced and utilized in the brain. This type of phospholipid can be found in the cell structure, but it is in high concentration in the wall membrane.
Phosphatidylserine assists in storing, releasing, and enhancing the activity of the receptors and their neurotransmitters. The concentration of Phosphatidylserines goes down as we grow old. This is why it is vital to supplement it from other sources.
The supplements help in boosting focus, improvement of cognition, and enhancing recall and memory.
Phosphatidylserine natural sources include sunflower lecithin and soybean lecithin. This type has the same benefits as that which is derived from animals. The standard dosage is about 100mg to 300 mg daily.
PQQ, also called pyrroloquinoline quinine, works as an enzyme o-factor. It is the only known nutrient that assists in the growth of new mitochondria cells in your brain.
Health experts have found evidence that PQQ supplements help in both the production and the eventual release of some nerve growth elements in body cell, which in turn helps in the formation of new brain neurons.
PQQ is also known to promote the characteristic of neuroplasticity that is vital in the development of memories and learning.
There are also studies that point towards the ability of PQQ to lower inflammation, enhance the density of mitochondria, improve memory and learning, and eliminate oxidative stress. PQQ is also an oxidant that is thousands of times stronger than the typical Vitamin C.
Apart from getting the energy boost, the use of PQQ supplement also prevents the speedy wearing down of brain cells and mitochondria. This is one of its anti-aging qualities that help the brain. The usual dosage for PQQ is a daily intake of 10mg to 20 mg.
This is one of the derivatives that are similar to GABA. However, it is said to be more than 30 times more potent than Piracetam. Pramiracetam is highly bio-available and is a fat soluble nootropic.
Researchers have found that it increases the acetylcholine receptors in human brain. This member of the racetam family helps in verbal recall and boosting of memory.
Since the compound is known to stimulate the uptake of choline in the brain, it can be stacked with great sources of choline like CDP Choline and Alpha GPC.
The optimal pramiracetam dosage is 1200 mg that is spread into two to three doses throughout the day.
Pterostilbene can be sourced from blueberries, grapes, and cranberries. Its structure is similar to that of Resveratrol.
Pterostilbene is one of the most potent antioxidants that are also known to stimulate the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. It also deals with anxiety, improves cognition, and enhances neuroplasticity, as well as memory and learning.
Its mode of working is by modifying the enzymes that are linked to increased glucose levels. This has an effect of the reduction of oxidative stress, blood sugar, and cholesterol. The balancing of these three helps prevent stroke and heart attacks.
Pterostilbene has many more benefits that Resveratrol due to its high bio-availability. However, both compounds are utilized together as they work differently. Users take a dosage of about 50 mg each day.
This is a type of a polyphenol antioxidant that is found in grapes’ skins. Its main work is to protect the grapes from disease attacks in the garden, cold bite, and UV rays of the sun.
Health research has shown that resveratrol can also help enhance your cognitive power, memory, and boost your learning by stimulating the hippocampus section of the brain. It also promotes the brain health by improving blood flow to the brain.
Other studies show that the use of Resveratrol can aid in neurogenesis and improve cell survival. That is in line with the improvement of memory. It is recommended that you take 20 to 250 mg of resveratrol each day.
SAM-e stands for S-Adenosyl Methionine. This is a natural compound that is synthesized in the body. It is made from binding an amino acid called methionine to an ATP molecule.
Sam-e aids in the repair, generation, and cell division of the transmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. This is why it is a potent nootropic.
Other benefits of using Sam-e include relieving stress, improving energy levels, and reducing the symptoms of fibromyalgia.
Sam-e is taken in high doses of 40 mg each day. However, like other nootropics, starters are advised to start with small doses so that they can tolerate the side effects before moving to higher doses.
St John’s Wort
This is a plant that has been used for ages and its effectiveness has been witnessed in wound healing and mood disorders. In the modern world, this plant is used as a remedy of anxiety disorders, stress, and depression.
St John’s is soluble, so it crosses the blood brain barrier. This makes it the fastest nootropic for effectiveness. This nootropic works by preventing re-uptake of serotonin in the brain.
Note that this plant, once used, has a strong effect, so once it’s used the effectiveness of another supplements is inhibited. Because of this, it needs to be used with caution.
The recommended dosage for this supplement is 800- 1000 mg per day and caution should be taken when using it as it works negatively when used with other supplements.
This supplement is synthesized from thiamine and is developed in Japan with the aim of treating deficiency in vitamin B.
This supplement is a soluble one that goes through the blood brain barrier easily, making it work fast. This supplement is used to treat mood disorders and to improve motivation and memory.
The recommended dosage for this nootropic is 4-500 mg per day and this should be adhered to strictly. Those who experience tolerances should be able to skip a few days when taking the supplement.
This supplement is an essential amino acid and a precursor to several enzymes in the brain. High levels of serotonin in the brain come about due to stable supply of tryptophan.
This happiness molecule will enable the body to have enough energy to perform several roles and keep the mind active. This supplement is found in consumed foods such as bananas, oats, chicken, and chocolate.
The body’s metabolism finds it hard to convert tryptophan.
As a nootropic, this supplement is used to treat anxiety, mood disorders, stress, memory loss, and loss of concentration. When taken in the right mounts, this supplement works faster and gives desired results.
It’s recommended that the available foods that contain tryptophan should be eaten in amounts that are sufficient to enhance proper production of the supplement in the body.
Turmeric is commonly found in India and, according to research, this supplement has been used for ages and found to be an effective nootropic. With the ability to treat brain conditions such as Alzheimer’s diseases, this supplement has attracted many users.
Note that, in India, people consume turmeric often as part of regular meals, and this may be why fewer cases of Alzheimer’s are reported in India.
According to a study carried out at the Florida College of Medicine, it was discovered that turmeric unblocks and cleans the blocks that cause Alzheimer’s disease in the brain.
The turmeric supplement features a lot of compounds that make it resistant to damage by bacteria, cancer, and other disease causing micro-organisms.
To increase the effectiveness of turmeric, one can combine it with other supplements. This supplement is used to treat mood and stress, and is an effective way of relaxing the brain and boosting its functions.
A dosage of 2 to 4 grams per day is recommended. Smaller dosage is also needed where the concentration of turmeric is higher, in which case 750mg three times a day is enough.
This is an amino acid produced by the body. It creates the building blocks of the brain, including dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. It has also been found to work on thyroxin production.
This product is found in products such as bananas, eggs, poultry, and beans, among other foods. The intake of these products results in better overall health and better brain function.
This supplement hangs on the amino acids and gets in to the blood brain barrier to work faster.
It has been reported that the intake of tyrosine improves mood, motivation, and focus. It also supports the organs that create hormones in the body, such as the pituitary glands, adrenal glands, and thyroid.
Other functions associated with this supplement include reduction of stress, anxiety, and balancing the mood.
The recommended dosage is 200mg per day and you can experiment to know the essentials levels for your body. If you aren’t sure about your body requirement, consult your doctor for more information.
This is a precursor to ribonucleic acid in the body. The RNA provides information to the DNA to enhance formation of synapses to transport information easily through the neurons.
Note that the levels of RNA in the body decrease as one ages, hence the need to supplement the body with uridine to enhance more production of RNA. Therefore, one requires enough uridine in the body to promote the anti-aging.
The uridine taken also improves brain functioning as one ages. Since it’s soluble, it moves through the digestive tract easily to perform the functions it’s intended for in the best way possible.
When there is proper movement in the brain, the numbers of synapses working to transfer information are numerous. If you are looking for the best uridine supplementation, then you should consume sugarcane, liver, tomatoes, and yeast.
Uridine has numerous functions that include mood stabilization, treatment of stress, anxiety disorders, and boosting memory.
The recommended dosage for uridine is 150 to 250 mg twice per day. The dosage should be taken strictly to avoid adverse effects that may arise as result of overdose. For more effect to be felt, one should combine with other supplements recommended.
This supplement encourages smooth blood flow and works by expanding the veins that transport blood. This supplement comes from the periwinkle plant. It’s soluble and easily crosses the blood brain barrier.
Vinpocetine helps in the supply of blood to the brain, boosting of memory, and promotion of better concentration and focus.
The recommended dosage of 10 mg three times a day is recommended. This will see your neurotransmitter’s working better and ensure better blood supply.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
For the production of cellular energy, which is ATP, vitamin B is required, so a good supply of thiamine helps the brain perform well. In addition, this supplement is needed for the manufacture of DNA and RNA.
The vitamin thiamine is mostly found in food stuffs such as pork, legumes, milk, spinach, sunflower, and yeast.
This vitamin is water soluble and lasts in the body for only 14 days. The solubility helps it to pass through the blood brain barrier easily. Deficiency of this vitamin results in brain problems, memory loss, confusion, and irritation.
More severe effects might results into poor health, and caution should be taken when the levels are low.
A minimum recommended dosage for this supplement is 1.4 mg per day. The nootropic effects come with higher dosage of 50-100mg per day.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
This supplement works to boost enzyme production to enhance proper body functioning. Since the body can’t make vitamin B5 on its own, supplementation is required to enhance excellent body performance.
Most of the foods we eat already contain pantothenic acid, so it is easily available.
This acid enhances production of fatty acids in the body. Some of the benefits that come with this supplement include memory boosting, focus retention, and enhanced learning ability. It also reduces brain fog.
This supplement absorbs quickly, so it is useful for fast brain activities.
The recommended dosage for pantothenic acid is 5 mg per day. Other supplements may be added to enable this supplement to bring out its nootropic effects.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
This supplement helps the body make several molecules that include serotonin and melatonin. The pyridoxine assists in the prevention of amino acids associated with heart disease. This vitamin is also required to make white blood cells to enhance body immunity.
Deficiency in this vitamin comes with depression, low mood, loss off motivation, stress, anxiety, difficulty in breathing, and loss of memory.
When the deficiency is noticed, you can take a supplement or increase your intake of foods like spinach, carrots, bananas, sunflower, poultry, and dairy products. Note that the foods mentioned above are easily available and supply the required amount of vitamins.
The dosage for this supplement is up to 100 mg per day. Overdosing can result in brain disorders that might affect your legs. Never go beyond 2000mg per day as this might cause neurological disorders.
Vitamin B8 (Inositol)
The B8 is also called Inositol and features high serotonin levels which produce a calming effect and relaxation when taken. It also boosts mental energy and mood.
This vitamin is not solely produced by the foods eaten as the body can also produce some amount of the vitamin. This vitamin ensures accurate information communication in the brain and acts as a good messenger supplement.
If one is facing panic attacks and obsessive symptoms, then Inositol can be effective in controlling the effects that come with those conditions.
The supplement is found in citrus fruits, liver, cereals, rice, and vegetables. These foods are easily available as the remedy to any deficiency of B8.
Instead of buying the supplements containing the vitamins, it is advised that you consume the foods mentioned above whenever possible. Individuals that eat more rice, vegetables, fruits, and liver rarely suffer from vitamin B8 deficiency.
For this supplement to function better as a nootropic, dosages of 500 to 3000mg per day are needed.
Vitamin B9 (Folate)
Also called Folate, vitamin B9 aids the brain in making several body enzymes such as serotonin, dopamine, and others. It takes part in the manufacture of DNA and RNA.
It also aids in the manufacture and conversion of other body molecules. It is essential in making genes, repairing genes, and synthesizing amino acids.
Green vegetables are rich in folate. It can also be produced from citrus fruits, legumes, and other foods. The right dosage is 400 mg per day. The dose should be adhered to keenly to minimize side effects.
Vitamin B9 is mostly found in green leafy vegetables, hence the name folate taken from the foliage of these plants. Folate is not the same as folic acid and one should not confuse the two.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
This supplement aids in conversion of carbohydrates to glucose in the body. Cobalamin deficiency mostly occurs in adults in the Western Hemisphere. This vitamin is also helpful in helping your body covert fatty acids into energy.
Deficiency in cobalamin causes brain fog, poor memory, fatigue, muscle weakness, loss of mood, poor concentration, and Alzheimer’s disease.
As one ages, the production of vitamin B12 becomes insufficient, at which time the supplement should be incorporated to allow new cell formation to boost brain function.
Naturally, when you eat animal products as well as plants then the supplementation of B12 brain energy is often sufficient without extra supplementation.
Since this vitamin is soluble, it dissolves quickly thorough the blood-brain barrier. The dosage for this vitamin should be 2000mg per day to ensure proper brain functioning and improved mood.
Final Verdict On The Top Nootropic Ingredients
Now you have an extensive list of the 72 most common nootropics. Start with small dosages and then slowly increase them.
You can make combinations as recommended above and get all the right nutrients the body needs for a healthy lifestyle. Follow the recommended dosages and do not overdose, as this can cause severe side effects.