Vitamins and Minerals Review

Ultimate Guide to Vitamin & Minerals

Almost all the food in your pantry has one thing in common: there’s nutritional info printed somewhere on the packaging.

Cereal boxes display their vitamins and minerals prominently on the front. Multivitamin supplements are popular among men and women of all ages. Some vitamins make your muscles grow, and other vitamins improve brain performance.

Important Vitamin & Mineral Information

But which vitamins do you actually need? Which vitamins offer the best health benefits? Today, we’re going to answer all of the questions you’ve ever wanted to ask about vitamin and nutritional supplements.

Terms You Need to Know

Vitamins: Vitamins are organic substances which your body’s cells use to grow, develop, and perform basic functions. There are 13 essential vitamins, and we’ll discuss all of those vitamins below.

Minerals: Minerals are inorganic substances, which means they do not contain any carbon and are not “living.” All minerals can be found on the Periodic Table. Like vitamins, they’re essential for normal body function and development. Some vitamins and minerals are considered macrominerals, which means your body requires large doses of these minerals. Other minerals are considered trace minerals, which your body requires in smaller doses.

Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins bind to fat during the digestive process. Then, as they pass through the intestines, they’re absorbed and stored in the body for later use. We’re less likely to be deficient in fat-soluble vitamins (including Vitamins A, D, E, and K), but we’re more likely to have a toxic buildup of these vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins cannot be flushed out of the body as easily, and taking too much of one supplement can cause a toxic buildup.

Water-Soluble Vitamins: Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins which can dissolve in water. In your body, this means your cells can absorb these vitamins directly. Our cells can only absorb a certain amount of these vitamins. After they reach this amount, our bodies flush the remaining vitamins out of our system as urine. Water-soluble vitamins include the four B complex vitamins as well as biotin, vitamin C, niacin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid. We tend to be deficient in these vitamins because they need to be restored more frequently. However, the body can also tolerate higher doses.

RDA: The Recommended Dietary Allowance, or RDA, is the average daily dietary intake an individual needs in order to stay healthy. These allowances have been established by top doctors and nutritionists and scientifically established as the “right” amount. RDA varies depending on your gender and age.

AI: Not all vitamins and minerals have an RDA. Often, this is the case when there’s been insufficient scientific study on a certain compound. In these situations, a vitamin or mineral may be assigned an Adequate Intake level, or AI.

UL: The tolerable upper intake level (UL) is the maximum amount our bodies can safely handle of a particular vitamin or mineral. Going over this limit will increase toxic buildup and possibly cause harmful side effects.

Measurements: Vitamins and mineral dosages are typically expressed in units of milligrams (mg) or grams (g). In some cases, like with trace minerals, the dosage may be expressed in micrograms (mcg). There are 1,000 micrograms in one milligram, and 1,000 milligrams in one gram.

The 13 Essential Vitamins

As mentioned above, there are vitamins, and then there are essential vitamins. There are a total of 13 essential vitamins which your body needs in order to properly function. Making these vitamins even more effective is that they work in complementary fashion, so the effects you get from one are complemented by taking another

Below, you’ll find a list of each of these vitamins along with their benefits, dosage instructions, and possible dietary sources.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is found naturally in eggs, meat, cheese, liver, and fish oil. It plays a critical role in maintaining healthy teeth and bones. It also promotes good vision and healthy soft tissue. Vitamin A is fat-soluble, which means it binds to fat during digestion.

Vitamin A is also known as retinol, retinal, or retinoic acid. After entering the body, it’s absorbed by your system, which is when it starts encouraging red and white blood cell production. It also enhances immune system functionality and may even reduce the risk of certain cancers. It helps to rebuild your bones while also regulating cell growth and division.

Vitamin A deficiency is rare in developed countries. However, the effects of vitamin A deficiency are serious: it causes night blindness and can even lead to complete blindness. The deficiency also weakens the immune system and may cause diarrhea.

How Much Do You Need?: Men need 900 mcg; Women need 700mcg

Best Dietary Sources: Eggs (91 mcg per egg), cod liver oil (1,350 mcg per teaspoon), carrots (538 mcg per ½ cup), baked sweet potatoes (961 mcg per ½ cup), canned pumpkin (953 mcg per ½ cup, cantaloupe (467 mcg per ½ a melon), butternut squash (572 mcg per ½ cup), and kale (443 mcg per ½ cup).

Maximum Daily Dose: 3,000 mcg

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Vitamin B1, also known as Thiamine, is a water-soluble vitamin which improves food metabolism while also boosting the health of your brain, skin, muscles, and hair.

Thiamin deficiency (known as beriberi) is rare in developed countries. However, in the past, it’s afflicted certain parts of Asia where rice-heavy diets are common. Beriberi targets a number of different parts of your body, including the cardiovascular, muscular, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems

Vitamin B1 toxicity has never been observed in clinical testing. Like all water-soluble vitamins, eating too much vitamin B1 just forces your body to urinate the excess vitamins.

How Much Do You Need?: Men need 1.2 mg; Women need 1.1 mg

Best Dietary Sources: Milk (0.10 mg per cup), enriched long grain white rice (0.26 mg per cup), pecans (0.19 mg per ounce), lentils (0.17 mg per ½ cup), and cantaloupe (0.11 mg per ½ fruit).

Maximum Daily Dose: Toxicity from excessive consumption has neither been observed nor reported

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 is also known as Riboflavin. It’s found in lean meats, eggs, dairy products, fish, and nuts. Our bodies use vitamin B2 for normal cell functionality, including growth and energy production.

Considered a water-soluble vitamin, B2 helps our bodies turn the food we eat into energy we can use. It has a particularly powerful effect on iron absorption within the intestines. Like many other vitamins listed here, riboflavin improves the health of your skin, brain, eyes, muscles, and hair.

Vitamin B2 deficiency isn’t very common. However, it does lead to some bizarre symptoms. Vitamin B2 deficiency has been associated with a sore throat, cracks and sores around the lips, scaly skin, and a condition called magenta tongue.

Like other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin B2 does not have any observed toxic doses. Any excess vitamin B2 you consume will simply be urinated out of your body – in fact, it turns your pee bright yellow.

How Much Do You Need?: Men need 1.3 mg; Women need 1.1 mg

Best Dietary Sources: Milk (0.34 mg per cup), eggs (0.27 mg per egg), enriched grains and cereals (1 to 2 mg per cup), cheddar cheese (0.11 mg per ounce), almonds (0.23 mg per ounce).

Maximum Daily Dose: Toxicity from excessive consumption has neither been observed nor reported

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 is a water-soluble vitamin also known as Niacin or nicotinic acid. Vitamin B3 comes primarily from dairy products as well as poultry, fish, and lean meats. Our bodies use this vitamin to improve digestive functionality while also healing the skin and nerves.

Vitamin B3 is particularly important for converting food into energy. It also contributes to good eye, skin, hair, liver, and nervous system health. Recent studies have also indicated that vitamin B3 may reduce the risk of high cholesterol and heart disease.

Vitamin B3 deficiency leads to a condition called pellagra, which causes skin problems like dermatitis as well as diarrhea, dementia, and even death. Niacin is toxic in large doses. Consuming too much niacin leads to something called the “niacin flush”, which is where your cheeks get rosy.

How Much Do You Need?: Men need 16 mg; Women need 14 mg

Best Dietary Sources: Chicken (7.3 mg per 3 ounces), salmon (8.5 mg per 3 ounces), coffee (0.5 mg per cup), peanuts (3.8 mg per ounce), fortified cereals (25 mg per cup).

Maximum Daily Dose: 35 mg (although the “Niacin Flush” is typically associated with doses of 50 mg or higher)

Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble vitamin also known as Pantothenic acid. Like many water-soluble vitamins, it plays a very important role in food metabolism. It also synthesizes neurotransmitters which can increase cognitive performance. Other effects include boosting red blood cell functionality. Vitamin B5 toxicity has not been reported.

Vitamin B5 deficiency is rare. If you don’t have enough vitamin B5, your toes might tingle and you could feel a burning sensation in your feet.

How Much Do You Need?: 5 mg (AI)

Best Dietary Sources: Chicken (0.98 mg per 3 ounces), eggs (0.61 mg per egg), yogurt (1.35 mg per cup), avocados (2 mg per whole avocado), mushrooms (0.52 mg per half cup), whole grains (0.19 mg per slice of whole wheat bread).

Maximum Daily Dose: Toxicity from excessive consumption has neither been observed nor reported

Vitamin B6

Also known as pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine, vitamin B6 is an essential water-soluble vitamin which is one of the most powerful vitamins on this list. It plays critical roles in regulating our appetite, sleep, mood, and a number of other bodily functions.

Vitamin B6 assists with the production of a hormone called serotonin, which is linked to our mood, appetite, and sleep cycles. At the same time, vitamin B6 also enhances the production of red blood cells and steroid hormones. It’s also been shown to improve cognitive and immune functionality, and it may even reduce the risk of heart disease.

Vitamin B6 deficiency is relatively rare. However, in cases of extreme deficiency, symptoms can be quite serious. Seizures and other neurological conditions can occur. Vitamin B6 can also be toxic, and taking too much vitamin B6 (typically in a supplement) can cause pain and numbness in your extremities.

How Much Do You Need?: 1.3 mg

Best Dietary Sources: Salmon (0.48 mg per 3 ounces), bananas (0.43 mg per medium banana), baked potatoes with skin (0.70 mg per potato), cooked spinach (0.44 mg per cup), and chicken (0.51 mg per 3 ounces).

Maximum Daily Dose: 100mg

Vitamin B7

Vitamin B7 is commonly known as Biotin. Oddly enough, it’s also called vitamin H. It’s a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which plays a massive role in cellular metabolism and growth. Essentially, it helps our bodies convert food into energy, and we use this energy for everything we do, including thinking and exercising.

Vitamin B7 deficiency is virtually unheard of. However, one study indicated that consuming too many raw egg whites could prevent biotin absorption, which could ultimately lead to a deficiency.

How Much Do You Need?: 30 mcg

Best Dietary Sources: Avocados (2 to 6 mcg per avocado), cooked salmon (4 to 5 mcg per 3 ounces), whole grains (0.02 to 6 mcg per slice of bread), eggs (13 to 25 mcg per large egg).

Maximum Daily Dose: Toxicity from excessive consumption has neither been observed nor reported

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is the final water-soluble B-complex vitamin on our list. It improves cellular metabolism, helping us digest food more efficiency – especially fatty food. It also is particularly effective at optimizing amino acids, cell growth, and neuroprotection (i.e. the protection of cells in our nervous system).

Vitamin B12 has also been shown to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s. As our bodies age, we require more and more vitamin B12 in order to stay healthy. In fact, doctors recommend keeping B12 supplements close by as you move into your grey-haired years due to its ability to fight memory loss, anemia, and dementia, among other neurological conditions.

No vitamin B12 toxicity has been reported. Since most of our vitamin B12 comes from meats and animal products, vegans and vegetarians typically need to take a vitamin B12 supplement to stay healthy.

How Much Do You Need?: 2.4 mcg

Best Dietary Sources: Beef (2.1 mcg per 3 ounces), salmon (2.4 mcg per 3 ounces), clams (84 mcg per 3 ounces), mussels (20.4 mcg per 3 ounces), poached eggs (0.6 mcg per egg), skim milk (0.9 mcg per cup), brie cheese (0.5 mcg per ounce).

Maximum Daily Dose: Toxicity from excessive consumption has neither been observed nor reported

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is best known for being in fruits and orange juice. Vitamin C has also been linked to some amazing health benefits. It’s shown to reduce the risk of cancers, including oral, stomach, and breast cancer, among others.

After being absorbed by our bodies, vitamin C promotes the body’s natural production of collagen, which helps us look younger while also healing wounds. Vitamin C also has powerful antioxidant effects and has been shown to boost the immune system.

Vitamin C deficiency isn’t as common today as it once was: you’ve probably heard of scurvy, the disease that afflicted early sailors because you can’t get fresh fruit when you’re in the middle of the ocean. Scurvy causes bleeding, bruising, joint pain, hair loss, tooth loss, and other yucky symptoms.

At the same time, vitamin C can be toxic in large doses. Some even claim you can overdose on vitamin C, although this has never been proven for certain.

How Much Do You Need?: Men need 90 mg; Women need 75 mg. If you smoke, you should take 35 mg more than the recommended amount (120 mg for males, 110 mg for females).

Best Dietary Sources: Citrus drinks like orange juice (100 or more mg per cup), grapefruit (75 mg per fruit), tomatoes (16 mg per tomato), red peppers (95 mg per ½ cup), strawberries (85 mg per cup) and broccoli (51 mg per ½ cup).

Maximum Daily Dose: 2,000 mg

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin which primarily comes from sunlight. Although it’s also available in foods, it’s difficult to get your recommended daily allowance from dietary sources alone. That’s why going outside is so important – and it’s also why people in northern latitudes buy a lot of vitamin D supplements.

Vitamin D plays a crucial role in calcium metabolism as well as immune and nervous system functionality and bone density. Our body produces vitamin D after being “activated” by UV rays from the sun.

However, that doesn’t necessarily mean you should spend all day in sunlight: our bodies don’t produce as much vitamin D when we wear sunscreen, and not wearing sunscreen leads to skin cancer. That’s why many people take supplements or choose vitamin D-enriched foods.

Vitamin D deficiency causes serious problems: it puts you at a greater risk for osteoporosis later in life. It can also increase your risk of certain cancers and negatively affect overall bone health.

How Much Do You Need?: 15 mcg

Best Dietary Sources: Vitamin D fortified milk (2.4 mcg per cup), canned salmon (1.3 mcg per 3 ounces), vitamin D fortified cereals (1.2 mcg per cup), egg yolks (0.53 mcg per egg)

Maximum Daily Dose: 50 mcg

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin which is found naturally in corn, wheat germ, spinach, and leafy green vegetables. It acts as an antioxidant, targeting free radicals throughout the body and increasing the formation of red blood cells.

The antioxidant effects of vitamin E can improve cognitive functionality and physical health. Additionally, vitamin E improves your balance, coordination, and muscle strength.

Vitamin E deficiency has been linked to impaired coordination, muscle weakness, and pain or numbness in the extremities. Surprisingly, an estimated 90% of Americans are vitamin E deficient in their daily diets.

How Much Do You Need?: 15 mg

Best Dietary Sources: Vegetable oils like canola oil (2.4 mg per tablespoon), olive oil (1.9 mg per tablespoon), almonds (7.3 mg per ounce), avocados (2.7 mg per avocado), and hazelnuts (4.3 mg per ounce).

Maximum Daily Dose: 1,000 mg

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is actually made by the bacteria that line your intestinal tract. It’s also found naturally in foods like cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, and other leafy greens. Getting an adequate amount of vitamin K promotes healthy blood clotting and has also been linked to bone growth.

Interestingly enough, Vitamin K received the “K” denomination because it was first discovered in a German journal, where it was called Koagulationsvitamin. The “K” has nothing to do with the mineral “K”, which is potassium.

As a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin K is found primarily in vegetables. Vitamin K deficiency leads to frequent bleeding, higher nosebleed frequency, and heavy menstrual periods. You also bruise more easily.

Ladies should be careful when taking a vitamin K supplement: combining vitamin K with birth control can lead to a higher risk of unwanted clots.

How Much Do You Need?: Men need 120 mcg; Women need 90 mcg (AI)

Best Dietary Sources: Cooked broccoli (220 mcg per cup), kale (547 mcg per cup), Swiss chard (300 mcg per cup), and parsley (250 mcg per ¼ cup).

Maximum Daily Dose: Toxicity from excessive consumption has neither been observed nor reported

Folic Acid

Folic acid is also known as vitamin B9, folate, or folacin. Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that is so important that the U.S. government fortifies most of America’s commercial flour with it. Why do they do that? They do it because folic acid helps pregnant women give birth to healthy babies and reduces the risk of birth defects – especially in the brain or spine.

Meanwhile, those who aren’t babies or pregnant women can reduce their risk of heart disease and colon cancer by taking folic acid.

How Much Do You Need?: 400 mcg

Best Dietary Sources: Orange juice (83 mcg per cup), lentils (179 mcg per half cup), fortified grains and cereals (200 to 400 mcg per cup), asparagus (134 mcg per 6 stalks), spinach (132 mcg per half cup).

Maximum Daily Dose: 1,000 mcg

Top 13 Most Important Minerals

There are 13 essential vitamins and there are dozens of important minerals. However, your body only really needs 13 of these minerals. Those 13 minerals can all be found down below.

Is 13 too many to keep track of? If you’re being choosy, you can effectively reduce this list down to 5. The 5 most important minerals are generally thought to be iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc, although all of the 13 listed below are very important for your overall physiological health:


What It Does: Strengthens bones and teeth and regulates heart rate, muscle, and nerve function.

Why You Need It: Calcium deficiency negatively affects bone and teeth formation.

Where You Get It: Milk, dairy products, leafy green vegetables, salmon, sardines, tofu, almonds, broccoli, and tofu.

How Much You Need: 700 mg per day (ages 1 to 3), 1,000 mg per day (ages 4 to 8), 1,300 mg per day (ages 9 to 18), 1,000 mg per day (ages 19 to 50), 1,200 mg per day (women age 51 and up), 1,200 mg per day (men age 71 and up).

Maximum Amount: 2,500 mg per day (ages 19 to 50), 2,00 mg per day (ages 51 and up)


What It Does: Essential trace element which lowers blood sugar levels and enhances the effectiveness of insulin.

Why You Need It: Chromium deficiency can cause your body to have trouble regulating sugar balance with insulin.

Where You Get It: Beans, cheeses, whole grain foods, peas, and meat.

How Much You Need: 25 mcg per day (women ages 19 to 50), 20 mcg per day (women ages 50 and up), 35 mcg per day (men ages 19 to 50), 30 mcg per day (men ages 50 and up).

Maximum Amount: 1,000 mcg (excessive doses can worsen insulin sensitivity)


What It Does: Enhances nerve functioning, red blood cell formation, energy levels, iron absorption, and immune system functionality.

Why You Need It: Copper deficiency leads to anemia, hair problems, dry cracked skin, and vitamin C deficiency.

Where You Get It: Beans, raisins, chocolate, meat, shellfish, and nuts.

How Much You Need: 900 mcg per day

Maximum Amount: 10,000 mcg per day


What It Does: Improves thyroid gland functionality. Your thyroid regulates the rate at which your body carries out essential physiological functions (almost everything you do).

Why You Need It: Low iodine diets can cause enlargement of the thyroid gland.

Where You Get It: Seafood, seaweed, iodized salt, and dairy products.

How Much You Need: 150 mcg per day

Maximum Amount: 1,100 mcg per day


What It Does: Makes your blood more efficient at carrying oxygen to the organs and muscles.

Why You Need It: Low iron levels can cause tiredness and lethargy, feelings of weakness, and palpitations.

Where You Get It: Red meats, egg yolk, legumes, dark green vegetables, and liver.

How Much You Need: 8 mg per day (men), 18 mg per day (women ages 19 to 50), 8 mg per day (women ages 51 and older).

Maximum Amount: 45 mg per day


What It Does: Helps muscles work, increases metabolism, enhances bone growth.

Why You Need It: Magnesium deficiency leads to lethargy, poor memory, irritability, tingling, rapid heart beat, and muscle twitching.

Where You Get It: Whole grains, nuts, legumes, bananas, soy beans, spinach, green leafy vegetables, and apricots.

How Much You Need: 400 mg per day (men ages 19 to 30), 420 mg per day (men ages 31 and older), 310 mg per day (women ages 19 to 30), 320 mg per day (women ages 31 and older).

Maximum Amount: 350 mg per day (this limit only applies to magnesium supplements as there is no known upper limit for magnesium from food or water).


What It Does: Improves bone growth and cell production.

Why You Need It: Manganese deficiency reduces serum cholesterol, which reduces growth of hair and nails. It can also lead to unhealthy weight loss, “scaly dermatitis”, and hair discoloration.

Where You Get It: Whole grains, fruit, vegetables, tea, and egg yolks.

How Much You Need: 2.3 mg per day (men), 1.8 mg per day (women

Maximum Amount: 11 mg per day


What It Does: Improves cell and nerve functionality.

Why You Need It: Molybdenum deficiency may lead to night blindness, rapid heart rate and breathing, headaches, and in rare cases, a comatose state.

Where You Get It: Dark green vegetables, peas, milk, beans, and grains.

How Much You Need: 45 mcg per day

Maximum Amount: 2,000 mcg per day


What It Does: Helps with nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood pressure regulation.

Why You Need It: Potassium deficiency has been linked to depression, fatigue, decreased heart rate, and hypertension.

Where You Get It: Bananas, oranges, peanuts, potatoes, beans, avocados, milk, and spinach.

How Much You Need: 3,000 mg per day (ages 1 to 3), 3,800 mg per day (ages 4 to 8), 4,500 mg per day (ages 9 to 13), 4,700 mg per day (ages 14 and older), and 5,100 mg per day (women who are breastfeeding).

Maximum Amount: No set upper limit. However, very high doses of potassium can be deadly.


What It Does: Prevents cell damage and improves the functionality of the thyroid gland. Acts as an antioxidant.

Why You Need It: Selenium deficiency is linked to poor cardiovascular health, osteoarthropathy, and even mental retardation.

Where You Get It: Brazil nuts, tuna, eggs, grains, fish, shellfish, and chicken.

How Much You Need: 55 mcg per day

Maximum Amount: 400 mcg per day


What It Does: Improves the strength of bones and teeth and Enhances resistance to cavities. As well as providing results in these categories: anti-aging, joint, wrinkles, energy, nails, and hair.

Why You Need It: Silica, often coined as “Nature’s Building Block,” is an essential trace mineral to the human body. It has been linked to play a key role in the absorption of key nutrients and vitamins in the body.

Where You Get It: Whole Grain Bread, Bananas, Green Beans, Spinach, Brown Rice, Oats And Beer. Supplements like Diatomaceous Earth,

How Much You Need: 20-30mg per day

Maximum Amount: No upper limit. Body uses what it needs and then the rest passes through natural discretion process.


What It Does: Improves water regulation in the body’s blood and tissue.

Why You Need It: Sodium deficiency has been linked to fatigue, apathy, and nausea. May also cause cramping in the legs and arms.

Where You Get It: Table salt and dairy products.

How Much You Need: 1,500 mg per day (ages 19 to 50), 1,300 mg per day (ages 51 to 70), 1,200 mg per day (ages 71 and up).

Maximum Amount: 2,300 mg per day


What It Does: Improves wound healing and also enhances our senses of smell and taste.

Why You Need It: Zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation, hair loss, delayed sexual maturation, impotence, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and eye and skin lesions.

Where You Get It: Poultry, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, beef, legumes, and whole wheat.

How Much You Need: 11 mg per day (men), 8 mg per day (women).

Maximum Amount: 40 mg per day.

Controversial Minerals

Fluorine / Fluoride

What It Does: Claims to Improves the strength of bones and teeth and Enhances resistance to cavities. But it currently banned in most countries. Untied States is one of few countries to still promote it and add to local drinking water.

Why You Need It: We are not sure you do. And many countries agree.

Where You Get It: Tea, fluoridated water (many cities in developed countries inject fluoride into their water), gelatin desserts, salt water fish like salmon.

How Much Is Claimed You Need: 3.5 mg

Maximum Amount: 10 mg per day

Are You Getting Enough Vitamins and Minerals?

As many as 77% of Americans don’t get their recommended amount vitamins and minerals on a daily basis. That can lead to serious diseases and illnesses, including everything from cancer to birth defects in your child.

For all of these reasons, getting your recommended daily dose of all the vitamins and minerals listed above is important. Below each vitamin or mineral above, we’ve listed the foods where you can also commonly find that vitamin or mineral. If you don’t like those foods or can’t get enough of them, then your best option is to take a vitamin or mineral supplement.

Vitamin and mineral supplements can be purchased at many supermarkets, drug stores, and pharmacies. You can also order them online. Use these supplements carefully: as mentioned above, taking too much of certain vitamins and minerals can be toxic to the body.

Always follow the recommended dosage instructions and consult with a physician before taking a vitamin or mineral supplement.


  1. I agree with Robert about the Flourine but I would also like to add that synthetic vitamin and mineral supplements can also do more harm than good. I like that you include a food list with each nutrient but it’s a tough haul to get most people to eat all of the whole foods required in order to get all of the nutrients their body needs every day. The answer to that is taking a vitamin mineral supplement for most people and what they might not understand is that there are some simple ways to get all of nutrition you need with whole foods, staying clear of synthetic vitamin and mineral supplement. To learn more on the subject see the article “39 Powerful Superfoods and Super Nutrients” and you’ll find that it’s easier than you may think to get all of your nutrition from whole food sources.

  2. Fluorine is not an essential nutrient is a toxic waste that has no place in our system. It contributes to cretinism in Children and lowers the IQ of children.

    It is an Iodine inhibitor as is Bromine. Both should never be in our diet.

    Boron is the proper mineral for healthy bones and teeth. Read this article.


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